The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia lies at the furthermost part of southwestern Asia. It is bordered by the Arabian Gulf, United Arab Emirates and Qatar in the east; Red Sea in the west; Kuwait, Iraq and Jordan in the north; Yemen and Oman in the south.
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies about four-fifths of the Arab Peninsula, with a total area of around 2,000,000 square kilometers.
Because of its large area, the Kingdom has a diverse topography. The Tihama coastal plain which lies along the Red Sea, is 1,100 kilometers long, 60 kilometers wide in the south and gradually narrows to the north until it reaches the Aqaba Gulf. To the east of this plain, lies a chain of mountains called Sarawat. These mountains rise to 9,000 feet in the south and gradually fall to 3,000 feet in the north. Several large valleys slope eastward and westward from these mountains. They include Jazan valley, Najran valley, Tathleeth valley, Bisha valley, Himdh valley, Rumah valley, Yanbu valley and Fatima Valley. To the east of the chain stands the Najd Plateau which extends eastward to Samman Desert, Dahnaa Dunes and southward to Dwaser valley. This region is parallel to the Empty Quarter Desert and stretches northward to Najd plains, passing through Hail until it connects with the Great Nefud Desert, then to the borders of Iraq and Jordan. There are also some mountains in this plateau such as Twwaig, Al-Aridh, Aja and Salmah mountains.
The Empty Quarter in the south-eastern part of the Kingdom occupies an estimated area of 640,000 square kilometers composed of sand hills and lava fields.
The eastern coastal plain is 610 kilometers long and consists of large sand areas and Salinas.
The climate of Saudi Arabia varies from one region to another because of its diverse topographical features. As a result of a subtropical high-pressure system, the Kingdom is generally hot in summer and cold in winter where rains fall often. Moderate climate is seen in the west and the southwestern part of the Kingdom; dry hot summer and cold winter in the interior parts; and high temperature and humidity in the coastal areas.
Major parts of the Kingdom usually receive scanty amounts of rain in winter and spring. However, in the summer, rainfall is significant in the southwestern mountains. Humidity is high on the western coasts and mountains almost all year and it gets lower as we go inland.
The Administrative Division of the Kingdom
Under the system of regions issued by the Royal order No. (1/92), dated 27/08/1412 H., the Kingdom has been divided into (13) administrative regions.
Each one of them is divided into a number of
governorates differentiating in number from one
region to another.
And each governorate is divided into centers linked administratively to the governorate itself or the emirate.
The emirate, governorate or center includes a number of population settlements linked administratively to it...
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia celebrates its National Day each year on September 23, in commemoration of the founding of the Kingdom by his Majesty King Abdul Aziz Abdul Rahman Al-Saud in 1932A.D
Flag of the Kingdom:
The flag of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is rectangular and its width is two-thirds of its length. It has a green background inscribed in the middle with the Islamic testimony (Shahada) “La Elah Ella Allah; Mohammed Rasul Allah” (There is no God but Allah; Mohammed is the Messenger of Allah) is written in an Arabic calligraphic form called “tholuth”. Beneath it is an Arab sword, the handle of which is turned to the direction of the flag’s mast. The Flag of Saudi Arabia must not be hung at half mast or touch ground or water in respect of the Shahada written on it.
The national emblem of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia consists of a palm tree on top of two crossed Arab swords. Swords symbolize strength, stamina and sacrifice while the palm tree symbolizes vitality, growth and prosperity.
Currency of the Kingdom:
The currency of Kingdom is the Saudi Riyal which is gold-plated, convertible and divided into 100 Halalas. It has the following denominations; paper notes : one Riyal, five, ten, twenty, fifty, one hundred Riyals, two-hundred and five-hundred Riyals; Coins : one Riyal, fifty, twenty five, ten and five Halalas. The exchange rate is 3.75 Saudi Riyals per one U.S dollar.
Measures and Weights:
The metric system is generally used in Saudi Arabia for measures and the Kilogram for weights.
The Hijri calendar starts on the day that the Prophet Mohammed (Peace be upon Him) migrated from Makkah to Madinah and it is the official calendar in Saudi Arabia. The Hijri year has 354 days divided into 12 lunar months.
The official holidays in the Kingdom are as follows :
Friday and Saturday.
Eid Al Fatr :
From 25th of Ramadan to 5th of Shawal for a duration of 10 days extending up to two weeks (if it starts before weekend holiday).
Eid Al Adha:
From 5th to 15th of Thul Hujja. All government institutions and departments are closed during these holidays.
It sets on the 1st day of Libra, on September 23rd of each year A.D., .
Symbols Used in this Book:
- Not existent.
... Not available
In some tables, totals were rounded independently. Thus sums of the individual figures may differ slightly from the totals shown.